C

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Cardiac

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Cardiovascular System

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Caudal

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Causalgia

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Central Canal

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Central Nervous System

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Central Pain

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Central Sleep Apnoea

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Cephalad

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Cephalgia

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Cerebellar Tonsils

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Cerebellum

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Cerebrospinal Fluid

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Cervical

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Cervicomedullary Syndrome

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Chiari 0

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Chiari I

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Chiari II

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Chiari 1.5

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Chiari III

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Chiari IV

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Chiari Malformation

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Chronic

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Chronic Fatigue

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Circulatory System

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Cisterna Magna

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CINE MRI

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Clivio-axial angle

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Clivus

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Complete Spinal Cord Injury

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Complex Chiari

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Complex Sleep Apnoea

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Condyles

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Connective Tissue

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CPAP

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Cranial Nerves

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Cranial Settling

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Craniocervical Junction

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Medical Terminology

 

Acute

Abrupt onset, with a short duration. 

Acute Pain

Pain that typically lasts less than 3-6 months. Relatively short pain experience, usually directly after an injury

Adrenal Gland

Found above each kidney the endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

Allodynia

Pain in response to something that should not cause pain. Like clothing or a light touch. 

Amygdala

Part of the brain located deep in the temporal lobe. Has a primary role in memory, decision-making and emotional responses. Part of the limbic system. 

Anaesthetics

Are drugs used to block/prevent pain, typically used in surgery and medical procedures. A wide variety of drugs are used to achieve this.

Anaesthetist

A medical professional specialising in administering anaesthetic techniques. Typically administration of general anaesthetics during an operation. 

Analgesia

The absence of pain in response to something that is painful. (i.e. painkillers have an analgesic effect)

Analogus

Performing a similar function but having a different evolutionary origin. Usually in reference to synthetic or donor dura patch types. 

Anaphylaxis

A very severe allergic reaction that can close off the airway and lead to death if untreated. 

Ankylosing Spondylitis

A type of arthritis where there is long-term inflammation of the joints in the spine.

Anterior

Anatomical Orientation: To the front of something, the front of the body.

Apnoea

Temporary cessation of breathing (e.g. Sleep Apnoea

Arachnoid Mater

The arachnoid mater is the middle of three layers that make up the lining of the spinal cord and brain

A disorder where the parts of the cerebellum called "cerebellar tonsils" herniate outside of the skull into the spinal canal. Also called Chiari, some people reserve "Arnold Chiari" to refer to Chiari Type 2. 

Arteries

Muscular-walled tubed that are part of the circulatory system where oxygenated blood goes from the heart to the body. 

Aspiration

When fluids, liquids, vomit and/or saliva is inhaled into the airways. 

Asymptomatic

When no symptoms are present. 

ASV - AdaotiveServo Ventilation

A piece of medical technology used in types of sleep apnoea such as central sleep apnoea or Cheyne Stokes. Has a different pressure when breathing in and out that adapts with each breath. 

Ataxia

A neurological sign with the lack of voluntary coordination of movements, gait abnormality, Frequently caused by dysfunction from the cerebellum. 

Atlas

The atlas (C1) is the most superior cervical vertebrae. Named after Atlas of Greek Mythology, because it supports the globe of the head

Arachnoid Granulations

Also known as Pacchionian granulations, are projections (villi) of the arachnoid membrane into the dural sinuses that allow the CSF entrance from the subarachnoid space into the venous system.

Atlanto-Axial Joint

Is a joint in the upper cervical spine between the first (C1) and second (C2) vertebrae. It is the pivot joint. 

Atlanto-Occipital Joint

Is a synovial joint that consists of a pair of condyloid joints. 

Atlantoaxial Instability (AAI)

Excessive movement at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2)

Atrium

Upper chambers of the heart where blood enters. 

Atrophy

Wasting away, decrease in size or body part, tissue, cell.

Autologous

Tissue or cells obtained from the same individual. Most commonly used to refer to dura patches that are harvested from your own body. 

Autonomic Nervous System

Control system that regulates unconscious actions like heart rate, digestion respiration rate, urination etc. Autonomic dysfunction can also be called Dysautonomia.  

Axial View

Anatomical orientation. Axial view in MRI's is the view looking down the head to the toes. 

Axis

The second cervical vertebrae (C2) of the spine. Part of the atlanto-axial joint, which allows rotation of the head. The most distinctive characteristics of the axis are the odontoid process called the dens.

Axon

A long slender projection of a nerve cell/Neuron that conducts electrical impulses aware from the nerve cell body. 

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B

Basal Ganglia

Group of nuclei in the brain associated with a variety of functions such as voluntary motor movement, procedural learning, routine behaviours, "habits" and emotion

Basilar Impression/Invagination

An abnormality of the craniocervical junction where the tip of the odontoid process projects above the foramen magnum into the skull area.

Basion

A radiological landmark in the skull. Used to measure the Basion-dens interval, basion-axial interval and McRae Line.

Basion-axial Interval (BAI)

The horizontal distance between the basion and posterior cortex of the axis. Measured in millimetres. Normal values are <12mm

Basion Dens Interval (BDI)

The distance between the basion and tip of the dens. Used in the measurement of instability. Normal distance is <12mm

Benign

Does not have a harmful effect. 

Benign Intracranial Hypertension

bFFE CINE MRI

Balanced Fast Field Echo. A specialised CINE MR Sequence where both T1 and T2 contrast are both represented in the image. This produces images with an increased signal from the fluid. 

BiPAP/Bilevel